It is called learning to the process of acquiring knowledge,
skills, values and attitudes, made possible by studying, teaching or
experience. This process can be understood from different positions, which
implies that there are different theories linked to learning. Behavioral
psychology, for example, describes learning according to the changes that can be
observed in the behavior of a subject.
The fundamental process in learning is imitation (the
repetition of an observed process, involving time, space, skills, and other
resources). In this way, children learn the basic tasks necessary to subsist and
develop in a community.
human learning is defined as the relatively unchanging change in a person's
behavior from the result of experience. This change is achieved after
establishing an association between a stimulus and its corresponding
response. Capacity is not exclusive to the human species, although in humans
learning was established as a factor that surpasses the common ability of the
most similar branches of evolution. Thanks to the development of learning,
humans have managed to achieve a certain independence from their ecological
environment and can even change it according to their needs.
The pedagogy establishes different types of learning. It can be mentioned
learning by discovery (the contents are not received passively,
but are rearranged to adapt them to the cognition scheme), receptive learning (the
individual understands the content and reproduces it, but fails to discover
something new), the meaningful learning (when the subject links
his previous knowledge with new knowledge and gives it coherence according to
his cognitive structure) and repetitive learning (produced when
data is memorized without understanding it or linking it with previous
Theories of learning
As defined by Isabel García, learning is all that knowledge that is acquired
from the things that happen to us in daily life, in this way knowledge, skills,
etc. are acquired. This is accomplished through three different methods,
experience, instruction, and observation.
According to Patricia Duce, one of the things that greatly influences
learning is the interaction with the environment, with other individuals, these
elements modify our experience, and therefore our way of analyzing and
appropriating information. Through learning, an individual can adapt to the
environment and respond to the changes and actions taking place around them,
changing if necessary to survive.
There are many theories around why and how human beings access knowledge,
such as that of Pávlov, who affirms that knowledge is acquired through reaction
to simultaneous stimuli; or Albert Bandura's theory in which each individual is
said to put together her own way of learning according to the primitive
conditions she has had to imitate models. For his part, Piaget approaches it
exclusively analyzing cognitive development.
In theories of learning, an attempt is made to explain the way in which
meanings are structured and new concepts are learned. A concept serves to reduce
learning to a point in order to decomplexize it and be able to
grasp it; they serve not only to identify people or objects, but also to order
them and classify reality, so that we can predict what will happen. At this
point, we can affirm that there are two ways to form the concepts: the
empiricist (it is carried out through a process of association, where
the subject is passive and receives the information through the senses) and the
European (it is achieved by reconstruction, the subject is active and
is responsible for building learning with the tools available to him)
To conclude we will say that learning consists of one of the basic functions
of the human, animal and artificial systems mind and is the acquisition of
knowledge from certain external information.
It should be noted that at the time when all human beings are born, except
those born with disabilities, we have the same intellect and that according to
how the learning process develops, said intellectual capacity will be used to a
greater or lesser extent..
Learning is acquiring, analyzing and understanding information from the
outside and applying it to one's existence. As individuals learn we must forget
the preconceptions and acquire a new behavior. Learning forces us to change
behavior and reflect new knowledge in present and future experiences. Three
essential acts are necessary to learn: observing, studying and